ARAB UPRISING INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS

Aijaz Ashraf Wani

Abstract


Abstract:Famous English historian Arnold Toynbee while analyzing the causes of the rise and fallof civilizations in his twelve-volume book ―A Study of History (1934-1961)‖ said―Civilizations die from suicide, not by murder‖, thereby putting the blame for thedownfall more on internal factors rather than external forces. When a civilizationresponds to challenges, it grows. It declines when its leaders stop responding creatively,and sink owing to nationalism, militarism, and the tyranny of a despotic minority. This ishappening in the Middle East, however, at the same time the external powers withnefarious designs play a great part, creating conditions where their interests are bestserved. The present crisis of the Arab World is therefore the result of the mixture ofinternal problems and the external manipulations. The present paper seeks to know whathappened recently in many countries of the region; how the regimes have responded andhow the external forces are playing their game for their own interests.

Keywords: Middle East, Mis-governance, dictatorship, uprising, corruption, EmergencyLaws, non-violent resistance, Qaddafi, Hosni Mubarak, Basher al Assad, Egypt, Syria,Libya, Tunisia, Bahrain, Iran, US, Wikileaks, New Middle East policy.


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